Time Scanning

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Get ready to scan your way across time! Time Scanning is a concept that embodies everything there is to love about the modern era; through a combination of eye-catching images, QR Codes, augmented reality, and 3D technology, the past can be revisted in a uniquely interactive way. The mural itself holds a diverse collection of images, some of which can only be viewed through 3D glasses. However, all of the images have a QR code that can be scanned to reveal more about the event that they represent. A few images also have a second code, known as an AR code; Android users can download the app and utilize the modern idea of virtual reality to see and learn about the image. Time Scanning is quick, easy and fun, so download the apps, hang on to your seatbelts, and get ready for the most modern adventure of your life!

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War and Diplomacy

World War I The Treaty of Versailles Outcomes of World War I World War II The Holocaust Conflict in Palestine The Cold War Berlin Wall Persian Gulf War Back

Nationalism

Decolonization of India Vietnam-The Geneva Conference and Communism Communism in Russia Changes in Latin America The Battle of Algiers Saddam Hussein 9-11 Al-Qaeda Back

Global Economic Development

The Great Depression World Bank International Monetary Fund Post WWII Economy European Economic Community Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries China Transition to Market Economy Chernobyl European Union North American Free Trade Agreement World Trade Organization-1995 Debt and Democracy of Latin America Back

Political Revolutions

Revolution in Mexico Revolution in China Revolution in Russia Revolution in Cuba Back

Social Reform

Inauguration of FDR European Destruction Mahatma Gandhi Decolonization of Africa Post-Revolutionary China Post-Stalin Soviet Union Dissolution of the Soviet Union Economy after Depression Back

Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Einsteins Theory of Relativity Invention of Movie Theatre Titanic War Firsts-World War I World War I Wartime Vehicles The Big Bang Theory Penicillin Discovered The Jet Engine World War II Wartime Vehicles Atomic Bomb Computers-The Manchester Baby Discovery of DNA The Space Age A Man in Space Saturn V Rocket A Man on the Moon Entertainment Industry-Hollywood Mobile Phones Human Genome Project Dolly the Sheep International Space Station Hubble Space Telescope Back

Demographic and Environmental Changes

Pesticides-DDT Population and Migration Patterns London Smog Green Revolution Kyoto Protocol Environmental Conditions Back

Literature

War by Luigi Pirandello from Night by Elie Wiesel Lord of the Flies Modernism in Literature Elie Wiesels Memoir Back
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War and Diplomacy

World War I

1914 to 1918 Nationalism (an intense pride in one's country), imperialism (the obtaining of colonies), militarism (keeping of standing armies) along with the complications arising from numerous alliances between nations set the scene for World War I. With these set in the time, there's no surprise that the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serbian nationalist was the immediate cause of the war.
Only a few weeks after the war had begun, European countries began mobilizing according to their system of alliances. There were two main alliances during World War I: the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria along with the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and Japan (with the later addition of the United States). The British Commonwealth (Including Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) fought on the Allied side. Even China declared war on Germany by 1917. Citizens of European colonies in Asia and Africa fought in the war as support and hoped to be granted independent as a result of the war effort.
How was the United States involved in the war? Before being drawn into the war later on, the US sold arms and lent money to Allied nations. Two events brought the United States into the war, effectively turning "the tide of the war in favor of the Allies" (Martin, 2011): Germany's declaration of submarine warfare along with Great Britain's interception of the Zimmermann Telegram (which proposed that if Mexico would join the axis powers, Germany would assist it in regaining its land lost to the United States). The USA's entrance into the war provided the Allied forces with "additional supplies along with freshly trained troops" (Martin, 2011).

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War and Diplomacy

The Treaty of Versailles

1919 The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace negotiations made after World War I between several of the Allied powers and Germany. For one, this treaty put total blame of the war on Germany, and the nation was responsible for over $33 billion in compensation payments. Also, as a consequence, Germany's military power was severely limited, and the country lost all its acquired colonies. The League of Nations, an organization formed to promote international peace, was another result of the war (Martin, 2011).

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War and Diplomacy

Outcomes of World War I

1918 There were several results of World War I, many of which laid the scene for what lay ahead. For one, the Ottoman Empire was reduced in size to modern day Turkey. The empire was divided into mandates and controlled by Allied forces. In addition to all the European destruction, almost an entire generation of European men was wiped out. The world map also drastically changes, with the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empire, China's loss of territory to Japan, Poland's reappearance to the European map, and Russia's lost territory to Romania and Poland. Finally, the Allied nations of Italy and Japan were disgruntled at not receiving additional territory (Martin, 2011).

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War and Diplomacy

World War II

1939 to 1945 After World War I, Germany was wounded and was suffering from their war debt. This led them to fall under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. Hitler was determined to bring Germany back to power again. In early 1939, Hitler invaded Poland, even after receiving warning from the French and British that they would provide military support to Poland, if they were invaded. This initially sparked World War II. This war then evolved to involve the Allies (Great Britain, the United States, France, the Soviet Union, and China) and the Axis Powers (Japan, Germany, and Italy). The war would finish with almost 50,000,000 deaths as the bloodiest war in history (World War II, Britannica, para. 1).

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War and Diplomacy

The Holocaust

1939 to 1945 Before and throughout World War II millions of Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, and other minority groups were persecuted by German Nazis. When the Nazis came to power in the 1930s, they believed that they were racially superior and that all other culture groups were considered inferior. With this, they set out to create a super race in Germany by eliminating all minority races. This mass genocide consisted of shipping Jews, Gypsies, and other minorities to concentration camps where they were worked or tortured to death. Today, we refer to this event as the Holocaust. (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, para. 1)

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War and Diplomacy

Conflict in Palestine

The basis of this conflict is that both the Muslims and Jews believe that they are entitled to this land for the religious importance it holds to them. The Jews originally inhabited the area around two thousand years ago, but were persecuted by the Romans in an event called the Diaspora. Soon Muslim Arabs began to inhabit this area and called the area Palestine, but in the 1800s they were challenged by Jews following a movement called Zionism. They wanted to reclaim their "homeland". The British originally controlled this area at the beginning of the conflict, but got sick of dealing with the constant bloodshed between the two groups. The British handed over control of this region to the EU. The EU decided to split up the region of Palestine into an area for both the Jews and Muslims. The Muslims, however, were not pleased with this idea. A civil war broke out between the Palestinian Muslims and the much-outnumbered Jews. The Muslims underestimated the Jews military power, though, and the Jews ended up controlling a larger area of land than would have been assigned to them by the EU. This conflict is still going on today and the boundaries between Muslim and Jewish Palestine (now Israel) are constantly changing (Lee, The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, para. 2).

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War and Diplomacy

The Cold War

1945 to 1991 Following World War II were decades dominated by two superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. These two forces were always on the verge of warfare, which describes the Cold War. As the Soviet Union extended their Communistic ideals throughout Eastern Europe, Asia, and Cuba, the United States did everything it could to contain this expansion.

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War and Diplomacy

Berlin Wall

1961 to 1989 At the close of World War II, Germany was divided into Eastern and Western Germany, with Western Germany being controlled by the US and Great Britain and Eastern Germany being controlled by communist Soviet Union. The Berlin Wall was built to keep people from fleeing Eastern Germany for Western Germany and to retain the German democratic Republic's workforce. The wall also increased tension between the Allies and the Soviets. The wall was built very strategically to provide the most maximum security and to stop fugitives. However effective the wall was, however, it eventually collapsed as the USSR crumbled (Berlin-Life.com, para. 2).

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War and Diplomacy

Persian Gulf War

1990-1991 The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and the United States (plus 32 other nations), that resulted from the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Saddam Hussein attacked Kuwait because of their overproduction in oil, accusing Kuwait of pumping oil illegally off Iraq's oil field. The United Nations set a deadline with Iraqi troops to withdraw from Kuwait by January 15th, 1991. Hussein decided not to not follow through. Because of his response, Operation Desert Storm was commenced. After four days of attack, the US had freed Kuwait. According to Pearson Education, "In 1993, the UN launched a few air-missiles at Iraq, because of provocations, including the plan to assassinate former President George H. W. Bush." (Pearson Education, 2012)

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Nationalism

Decolonization of India

1935 to 1972 Mohandas Gandhi?s efforts largely impacted India?s independence from Great Britain. In 1935, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act, which transferred local governments to Indian leaders. Muslims, at this time, however, delayed independence (wanting their own separate state). India?s was granted its independence in 1947 by the British. At the same time, the nation of Pakistan was created. When created, it was divided by India into eastern and western regions. Soon enough, Burma (Myanmar) and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) also gained independence. Finally, a civil war in Pakistan because of unequal wealth distribution eventually leads to East Pakistan becoming Bangladesh.

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Nationalism

Vietnam-The Geneva Conference and Communism

1954 In an effort to resolve several problems in Asia, including the war between the French and Vietnamese nationalists in Indochina, representatives from the world's powers meet in Geneva. The conference marked a turning point in the United States' involvement in Vietnam.

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Nationalism

Communism in Russia

After World War I, Russia's autocratic government crashed to the ground, and ideas of communism grew throughout the parliament. Vladimir Lenin gained control of the U.S.S.R. after a four-year civil war, and became the first communist regime of the 20th century (Henderson, 2009). When Lenin died, his position was filled by Joseph Stalin. He set up the Five-Year Plan, attempting to strengthen the economy and government. According to Henderson, " Stalin did not focus on producing consumer goods. Instead his plans increased the output of electricity and heavy industry, such as iron, steel, coal, and machinery. Agriculture was collectivized, a process that abolished small private farms and forced farmers to work on large government-controlled farms that produced food to support industry." He had created Stalinism. Stalinism was basically a centralized government. The U.S.S.R. became the world's third largest industrial power (Henderson, 2009).

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Nationalism

Changes in Latin America

1961 The United States? interaction with Latin America has changed throughout this era. In the mid 20th century, the US attempted to contain communism by supporting democratic governments. The Alliance for Progress began in 1961 as a program to develop Latin American economies. For a short while later, however, the US changed to a practice of less intervention. We returned control of the Panama Canal back to Panama during the Carter administration. In the late 1900s again, the US assumed a more direct role in Central American government (such as ending the Noriega government, which was known for its authoritarianism) (Marin, 2011).

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Nationalism

The Battle of Algiers

1966 This film, The Battle of Algiers, was created in 1965, by Italian director Gillo Pontecorvo. As the name suggests, the movie is about the conflicts between Algerian colonists and the French that colonized them (Johnson, 2003). The Algerian War was one of the cruelest conflicts of the century between France and Algeria. Algerians, high with pride and nationalism, wanted to gain its independence. In this war, techniques such as guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and torture were highlighted.

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Nationalism

Saddam Hussein

1979 Saddam Hussein was involved in politics in Iraq. His involvement in politics, however, wasn't necessarily in the best interest of the country. Hussein joined the Baath party in his early twenties. The Baath party was a rebellious political party fighting for control of Iraq. As a newly joined member of the Baath party, Hussein participated in small-scale riots against the government. He was promoted to the assassination team when he was 22. He escaped to Syria in exile in order to evade capture by the government after a failed assassination attempt on Iraq's Prime Minister. The Baath party overthrew the Iraqi government, and Hussein was able to return home from his exile. Only nine months had passed when the Iraqi government retook their country. Saddam Hussein was arrested and sentenced to jail. He escaped his torture in jail after having spent eighteen months there. In 1968, the Baath took back power from the Iraqi government. Hussein had become extremely popular within the party, and resultingly, he became vice president of Iraq under the Baath regime. In 1979, Saddam Hussein became the president of Iraq. His presidency resembled more of a dictatorship than an actual presidency. Chemical weapons were a favorite of Saddam Hussein, as he used them in warfare and to wipe out innocent civilians. Hussein was found while he was in hiding, and he was sentenced to death by hanging in late 2006 (Rosenberg, para. 6-9, 11, 14).

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Nationalism

9-11

2001 On the morning of September 11, 2001, the United States fell under terrorist attack by the terrorist group, al-Quaeda. The attacks were a series of plane hijackings that took the vessels straight into the two towers of the World Trade Center. At the time they were the tallest towers in the world. Another plane was flown into the Pentagon, the military headquarters of the United States. At 8:46 am the north tower was targeted. It wasn't until seventeen minutes later, when the south tower was struck, that suspicious of attack began to take hold. At 9:37 these suspicions were confirmed when the pentagon was struck. A fourth plane was supposed to attack, but was instead flown into a field in Pennsylvania by the brave members of the flight. These attacks left thousands dead and a nation in fright.

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Nationalism

Al-Qaeda

1988 to 2008 After the attacks on 9/11 Al-Qaeda became the world's most infamous terrorist group. The leader of this group was Osama Bin Laden and there was much controversy on whether the terrorist group was associated with Pakistan and Afghanistan economies and politics. This idea was created because of the decline in economic success when the U.S had many successful counterterrorism organizations placed in Pakistan. The terrorist organization began to decline with the teamwork and alliances made in order to prevent the horrendous issue itself.

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Global Economic Development

The Great Depression

1929 to 1939 In the 1930s, most of the world experienced a decade of economic suffering. It originated with the US Stock Market crash and spread throughout the rest of the world. Many people thought there was more money in the banks than what there actually was. Once the patrons of these banks realized their money was not guaranteed to them, they demanded that all of the money in their accounts be paid to them in cash. Many banks started to pull their loans and eventually closed (Pells & Romer, 2012, para. 1, 4, & 7). This was a result of the prosperous lifestyles in the early to mid-1920s. No one paid any attention to their spending habits because they were so sure all of their money was there. Employment rate was around 25%. The price of stocks skyrocketed, and interest rates were raised in the hopes it would slow this rapid increase in price. These new interest rates decreased automobile production because interest was used in the payment of the car.

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Global Economic Development

World Bank

1944 The World Bank is technically not a bank, but it is, in fact, a collections of five organizations fighting for one purpose: to eliminate world poverty. These organizations are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Together, these organizations are referred to as the World Bank Group (WBG). The WBG gives loans and grants to developing countries. In return, the country had to agree to stop spending money they don't have and try to bring value back to their currency if hyperinflation occurred. Money from the WBG usually goes towards public service projects, such as upgrading infrastructure and improving education. Also, money goes towards strengthening different economic sectors within the nation, mainly agriculture. Within the WBG, there is a President and a 25-member Board of Executive Directors. The US, UK, Japan, Germany, and France each have an executive director for just their country because they are the most active nations in the group, and the rest of the 182 countries are represented by regional executive directors (Amadeo, 2012).

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Global Economic Development

International Monetary Fund

1944 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an financial agency established by the United Nations in 1944. The mission of the IMF is to stabilize exchange rates and protect the monetary cooperation of the world. The Board of Governors is in charge of the IMF. Every country involved in the IMF has a representing governor that attends annual meetings to discuss the financial situation of world. A board of executive directors is in charge of the daily operations of the IMF. The countries with the largest economies (China, UK, US, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and Italy) are represented by their own executive director and the other 16 executive directors represent different regions around the world (McQuillan, 2011, para. 11).
Every country that holds a membership of IMF has to pay quotas to the fund. This money goes towards loans for underdeveloped countries. The quota differs from country to country. The quota amount depends on how well a country is doing financially. Currently, the United States pays the largest quota at $50 billion. The more money a country contributes, the more power they have. Since the United States pays about 18% of the IMF's quotas, they have more votes than any other member country (McQuillan, 2011, para. 12).

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Global Economic Development

Post WWII Economy

1945-1960 Many people feared that the ending of WWII would push the U.S into another Great Depression. America however, demanded for more products during this postwar period and sent the economy soaring. More and more houses were being built along with the more and more babies being made therefore producing more consumers who would then demand more products. The middle class was growing and so was the national GDP every decade. This was a happy period for the united States of America and allowed for exponential growth technology wise, placing the U.S in a Cold War against the Soviet Union.

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Global Economic Development

European Economic Community

1957 In 1957, the Treaty of Rome was signed by Germany, France, Luxembourg, Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The purpose of this treaty was to establish the European Economic Community, or EEC. The unofficial name was the Common Market. The EEC's mission was to better the relations between member countries and to unite the markets of this community. Like NAFTA and the EU, the EEC eliminated tariffs between member countries and put a fixed amount of tariffs when exporting to other countries outside of the EEC. In addition to allowing the free flow of goods and services through the community, the EEC lifted restrictions on citizens of member countries when passing between member countries. The agricultural policies for all of the member countries differed significantly at the start of the EEC in 1958. A common EEC agriculture policy was established so that tariffs between member countries were abolished, tariffs between non-member countries were set a fixed amount, and the standard prices in agriculture were equalized. Soon, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, and the UK joined the EEC. Then in 1992, the Treaty of Maastricht brought in the formation of the European Union (Gabel, 2012).

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Global Economic Development

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

1960 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was founded in 1960 as a way for countries that export oil to have more power in the oil market. Originally, there were only five member countries, but the organization has grown to twelve members. Member countries have been discussing whether or not to use this power for a political agenda. OPEC's mission is to coordinate between all of the policies between member countries in the hopes of regulating fair prices for petroleum. In the 1970s, the full effect of OPEC started to come around. The member countries of OPEC were given the power that they never had. In taking advantage of this power, they started to coordinate the price of crude oil, and consequently, foreign influence in the oil industry lessened. During times of conflict with the OPEC countries, oil prices increased, and relationships between the OPEC countries and consumer countries were damaged. After a downfall in the oil market, OPEC started to coordinate with customers and other non-OPEC petroleum producers to set reasonable prices in order to not upset the market again. OPEC is headquartered in Vienna, Austria, and the Secretary-General is Abdalla Salem El-Badri. The Secretary-General's term lasts three years and is allowed to be re-elected once. Currently, the member countries are Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Venezuela. The Secretary-General is from Libya (Profile: Opec, club of oil producing states, 2012).

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Global Economic Development

China Transition to Market Economy

1979 to Present Due to the lack of market efficiency comparing to those around the world China realized the importance of market styles of economy. Market Systems including those of Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong were all shown to be far more successful than the the communist, central style market of China. China, not wanting to completely abandon communism itself, began to implement a Market style economy to keep up with the rest of the world. after many incremental and local experimentation China had accomplished nationally a better form of economy. China to this day is converting its economy into a strong Market and is essentially becoming an economic competitor in the world today.

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Global Economic Development

Chernobyl

1986 The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst in history. On April 26th, 1986, workers at the fourth reactor attempted a poorly designed experiment and shut off the reactor's safety system. At 1:23 AM the core reactor went out of control and produced a massive fireball. Although the Soviets tried to keep the accident a secret, Swedish power plant workers detected high levels of radiation and inquired if anything had happened. The Soviets confessed to an accident at the plant. Thirty-two people were killed in the original explosion but thousands more were affected by radiation later (Chernobyl Accident, Britannica, para. 2).

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Global Economic Development

European Union

1992 In the early 1990s, the idea of having a single market diffused throughout Europe. This single market would allow for easier trade and easier travel through participating nations. The Treaty of Maastricht was signed on February 7, 1992, and about 18 months later, the European Union (EU) was put into effect. Some of the main goals of the EU were economic and financial unification as well as strengthening the democratic governments of Europe. Currently, there are 27 countries in the EU. The Euro is the only currency used within the EU. The Treaty of Lisbon was signed in late 2007 in order to increase the efficiency of the EU to deal with emerging problems, such as national security and global climate change. In order to become a member of the EU, a country must demonstrate both a stable government and economy, as well as agree to follow all current and future policies. The Council of the European Union is the main decision making body of the EU. Within the Council, there are representatives from every nation in the EU. Every six months, a representative of a nation becomes the Council President. Each nation has a turn as this position. The European Parliament serves as a citizen-elected legislative body, and the European Commission manages the EU. Commissioners and representatives in these two bodies hold five-year terms (Briney, 2010).

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Global Economic Development

North American Free Trade Agreement

1994 The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was implemented at the beginning of 1994. Its sole purpose was to eliminate the tariffs between Mexico, the United States, and Canada. NAFTA has promoted the North American economy in world trade. In addition to ridding of tariffs and other barriers restricting trade, investments opportunities increased and it soon became the largest free trade area in the world. Under NAFTA, there are regulations and procedures to dismantle any trading dispute between Mexico, the US, and Canada. Also, each country has their own agreement on trade with each other. So far, NAFTA has had a positive impact on the North American countries. It threw them into the world competition for trade (Amadeo, 2012).

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Global Economic Development

World Trade Organization

1995 The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the ruling body on international trade. They act as an executive, legislative, and judicial branch. The main purpose is to abolish tariffs between member countries. This mission is similar to that of the EU, NAFTA, and EEC; however, the difference is their jurisdiction is the world. A decision made by the WTO must be followed by every member country and is absolute, meaning the decision is final. Any country that refuses to follow the policies and rules of the WTO will have sanctions imposed on them by other countries. Established in Geneva in 1995, the WTO has a much broader mission than just abolishing tariffs. They protect against property rights and other services, such as banking. The head of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference. Every two years, this group meets to discuss topics as well as elect the director-general of the WTO. They also oversee the actions of the General Council. Disputes and conversations about global trade deals are discussed in the Ministerial Conference. The General Council is charged with running the daily operations of the WTO. Ambassadors from member countries make up the population of the General Council. Pascal Lamy is the current director-general of the WTO (Profile: World Trade Organization, 2012).

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Global Economic Development

Debt and Democracy of Latin America

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Political Revolutions

Revolution in Mexico

1910 The Mexican Revolution was brought on by, among other factors, tremendous disagreement among the Mexican people over the dictatorship of President Porfirio Díaz, who, all told, stayed in office for thirty one years. During that span, power was concentrated in the hands of a select few; the people had no power to express their opinions or select their public officials. Wealth was likewise concentrated in the hands of the few, and injustice was everywhere, in the cities and the countryside alike.

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Political Revolutions

Revolution in China

1912 Centuries of Chinese dynastic rule had finally come to an end in the early 20th century. Sun Yat-sen, a Chinese revolutionary, was the chief leader in the demise of the Qing dynasty. Wanting to make China's government more Westernized and to benefit the peasants, the leaders of the movement "envisioned a China free of foreign imperialists" (Martin, 2011). The movement was mostly lead by Western-educated reformers who admired certain aspects of Western society. A final rebellion in 1911, after the increased opposition to Chinese reliance on Western loans, ended the Qing rule and founded the Republic of China. Sun Yat-sen was the first president of this newly formed republic (Martin, 2011)!

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Political Revolutions

Revolution in Russia

1917 The Russian Revolution is a collective name for the series of revolutions that occurred in Russia throughout the beginning of the twentieth century. The most influential revolutions occurred in 1917 and are responsible for the removal of the imperial government and the placement of the Bolsheviks in power. The public was incredibly dissatisfied with the tsar's way of dealing with World War I, which in part sparked the revolution. Riot due to food scarcity also played a part. It was the Bolsheviks campaign of "peace, land, and bread" that earned their authority and love of the people (Britannica, Russian Revolution of 1917, para. 3-5).

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Political Revolutions

Revolution in Cuba

1956 to 1959 On December 2, 1956, the Granma, holding Fidel Castro and 82 others landed on the shores of Cuba. Immediately, Fulgencio Batista's soldiers began taking down Castro's men. However, the most important men still made their to the Sierra Maestra mountains. The towns that supported Castro were attacked first. This added more support to Castro and his rebellion. According to ThinkQuest (2011), "Frank País, whom Castro had left in charge while in exile, began to attack the Batista government in various ways. Anti-Batista students, though not associated with the Castro-led group of rebels, unsuccessfully led an armed assault on the Presidential Palace." Bastista then started Operation Verano. He was outnumbered, and Castro's army drove them back to where they started. Soon, after many casualties and fights, Batista surrendered, and fled to Spain. Castro, took over, victoriously

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Social Reform

Inauguration of FDR

1933 The Great Depression was the time span prior to the inauguration to Franklin Delano Roosevelt and therefore led to a unseen apon effect of the distracted minded citizens whom had other worries economically. Due to this, Inauguration day was a mild, dreary regular Depression Day. FDR was paralyzed from the waist down, but this was not able to take away his dream of becoming president. Once president he made a series of Acts which were quite controversial including Social Security and Bank Restoration. The United States economy however, bounced back at this time and made FDR look like a superhero to the rest America. Whether his Acts which are still used today worked or the economy essentially was able to repair on its own by the people, FDR was able to give America hope which was possibly what America during the Great Depression needed most.

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Social Reform

European Destruction

1939-1945 World War II brought on an immense amount of destruction. The Holocaust, the mass genocide by the German Nazi party, killed over 6 million Jews and people of other ethnicities. 20 million soldiers around the world died, and as seen in this image, European infrastructure suffered major damage. Around 70 percent of industrial infrastructure was destroyed, and as a result, Germany was forced to pay reparations to France, Britain and the Soviet Union (New World Encyclopedia, para. 55 & 57).

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Social Reform

Mahatma Gandhi

1869-1948 After much great education in college and of many different religions Gandhi came up with The Satyagrah or "devotion to truth," a new nonviolent way to persist with wrongs. millions caught on to Gandhi's way of life and became admissible followers of his ideas. One of his ideas included Boycotting British institutions which led to the arresting of thousands. In 1930 Gandhi led a protest against the tax on salts which included the marching of many thousands to the ocean in order to create their own salt. On January 30, 1948 however, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic.Gandhi was going to deliver a speech in Delhi in order to attempt to promote peace against a divided religious war between India and Pakistan.

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Social Reform

Decolonization of Africa

1949 South Africa's successful struggle for freedom and democracy is one of the most dramatic stories of our time. The racial tyranny of apartheid ended with a negotiated transition to a non-racial democracy, but not without considerable personal cost to thousands of men, women, and young people who were involved.

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Social Reform

Post-Revolutionary China

1949 to Present The 1949 Revolution solved the issue between the KMD (Guomindangs) and Communist party of China on who would be incontrol politically of China. The Communist Party of China eventually won and quickly began to take hold of the happiness of its population by solving economical issues that were sparked by the previous civil war. Issues which the previous war had sparked include low levels of gross domestic output, high rates of inflation, and high levels of urban unemployment. In order to stop the main problem of lack of food the CPC main strong relationships with the farmers in the outer fields and implemented rewards to those who were in charge of agriculture. The Cpc was then able to work its way out of economic depression.

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Social Reform

Post-Stalin Soviet Union

1960 to 1980 Joseph Stalin died in March of 1953. Nikita Khrushchev became the leader of the Communist Party in the USSR. He believed that Stalin's rule of terror was unethical, so he entered the Soviet Union into a period known as "de-Stalinization" or the "Thaw of Stalin." This shed light and brought forth criticisms of the deceased dictator. Khrushchev claimed that the Communist Party had become stronger, and therefore, he allowed more freedom within the Soviet Union. The new leader of the Communist Party had an idea to cultivate and farm land that wasn't being used. Also he funded the space program, which entered the Soviet Union into the "Space Race" with the US and other countries (Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971), 2006).

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Social Reform

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

1991 In December of 1991 history was made which gave the United States a peace of mind and led to the alliances of many countries around the world. The totalitarian Soviet Union was split into fifteen separate countries. The United States and Soviet Union were the most powerful countries and were in what was known as the Cold War since the end of WWII. The war included threatening of nuclear weapons, races to space and the moon, and races to perform many other technological advances. The dissolution of the Union essentially was due to the unhappiness of those of different ethnicities (around 50 percent of the population), an economic system which could not meet that of the states, and that the people of this area never firmly took hold of the idea of Communism.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Einsteins Theory of Relativity

1905 Developed in the early 20th century, Einstein's Theory of Relativity is one of the most prominent scientific advances in history. "He recognized that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant and an absolute physical boundary for motion" (AllAboutScience.org, 2012). He also derived the formula E=mc^2, which shows that mass is the equivalence of energy. He continued to develop and research many new scientific advancements. He received the Nobel Prize in 1921, for his work on relativity, the photoelectric effect, and blackbody radiation.
Physicists usually view the Theory of Relativity into 2 parts: Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity. The Special Theory Of Relativity deals with whether or not rest and motion are relative or absolute. With Einstein's theory, this answer is "relative". The General Theory of Relativity deals with particles when they accelerate mostly due to gravity.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Invention of Movie Theatre

1905 The first movie theatre devoted specifically to the showing of moving pictures was the Nickelodeon on June 19th, 1905. This was an example of the world advancing technology wise and showed also a huge start in the service industry. Service is a current industry that show great action in the economies of countries around the world. Service plays a huge role not only economically, but demographically in stage four type countries. The U.S, stage four country, shows that people prefer tertiary jobs like becoming doctors which require a large amount of time and education. After all of this time and education when the individual is starting a family the person is older and usually around the late thirties or forties. The chance of Fertilization during pregnancy is a lot less likely after all of that time. Therefore the overall nation after many people resemble this life will have a larger life expectancy and lower birth rate. This sparks the problem of who will then care for the old. The movie industry is simply an example of a service industry which can be shown to affect the economy and demographics of countries around the world.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Titanic

1912 The Titanic was a monumental landmark of the technological advancements of the twentieth century. At the time, it was the largest ship in the world, considered unsinkable. The ship was built by the company White Star in response to their rivals releasing two record-breakingly fast ships. When the Titanic set sail on its maiden voyage from South Hampton, England to New York City, no one thought in their wildest dreams that the ship would sink. Unfortunately, an iceberg punctured the ship's hull and, three days after it set sail, the ship sank killing 1500 people. This famous event sparked much talk, controversy, and several movies and books (Titanic (ship), Britannica, para. 5).

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

War Firsts-World War I

1914 World War I, aside from being called "the war to end all wars," was a time of many firsts. With countless advances in a variety of fields, militaries across the globe reaped the benefits, and implemented these technologies into their war strategies. The first world war was the first time American soldiers were given IQ tests, for example (History.com, 2012). In addition, smaller technologies that made a huge difference were the use of steel helmets to protect soldiers and flamethrowers as weapons; the use of chemical warfare involved some of the first gas masks and guide dogs the world had ever seen in war (History.com, 2012). Among the products that impacted the war with a greater force were tanks, aircraft carriers, and fleets of fighting aircraft; although tanks, for example, were most numerous in the British and French militaries, several other countries benefited greatly from the use of these war machines (History.com, 2012).
Medical advances also aided the war effort. X-ray machines were used in war for the first time, and a blood bank was officially established for wounded soldiers (History.com, 2012). These undoubtedly saved more soldiers than any previous war. Finally, World War I was the first time women made an appearance; many women enlisted in navies, particularly that of the United States (History.com, 2012). Their jobs varied from working as telephone operators to assisting with medical needs, and they proved to themselves and the men that they worked alongside that they were just as capable as men were.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

World War I Wartime Vehicles

1914 The United States became the world's largest manufacturer of automobiles and trucks prior to and during World War I. Domestically, the Model T Ford made production history with the development of an assembly line that put out more than 15 million cars in less than twenty years (Britannica, 2012, para. 11). During the first world war, these vehicles were used by various countries to transport goods and supplies to and from troops. Additionally, automobile factories could be easily converted into facilities to manufacture wartime equipment, such as artillery, tanks, and various aircraft (Britannica, 2012, para. 25). The flexibility of these production facilities proved to be extremely valuable to governments and armed forces of the US and many other countries involved in the war.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

The Big Bang Theory

1927 Proposed by Russian mathematician Aleksandr Friedmann in the 1920s, the big bang theory sought to explain the origins of the universe. The big bang theory states that the universe evolved from a highly condensed and pressurized ball of matter that exploded, expanding into the universe today, which is still continuously expanding. This event marked the dominance of matter over antimatter in space and the presence of helium, hydrogen and lithium in the universe (Britannica, Big-Bang Model, para. 1-2).

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Penicillin Discovered

1928 The world's first miracle drug, penicillin was discovered in 1928 by British bacteriologist, Alexander Flemming. His chance discovery of the drug in a contaminated petri dish changed the face of medicine. Penicillin is an antibiotic that would be used in the Second World War and to help fight infection. Although the bacteria-fighting effects of penicillin were discovered in 1928, it took until 1940 for Australian Howard Florey and German Ernst Chain to make it useable (Alexander Flemming Discovers Penicillin, Jennifer Rosenburg, para. 3).

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

The Jet Engine

1939 The jet engine was a fairly new technology that was first put into play in World War II. It was developed around the same time in two separate places, Germany and Great Britain. Soon after the jet engine was developed, these two countries would be at war. The image above is the vessel in which the first jet-powered flight was taken in, the Heinkel He 178 (History of Flight, Britannica, para. 16)

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

World War II Wartime Vehicles

1939 In preparation for the second world war, countries took advantage of automobile plants and other production facilities. Now that they knew that they could be transformed to produce artillery, tanks, and aircraft for the war, they sped into the war full-steam ahead. Although it took some amount of modification to allow the production of aircraft and their engines using the assembly plants and engine factories of automobiles, it was eventually overcome (Britannica, 2012, para. 28). The United States, Great Britain, and Germany all had their own ways to prepare for the war. In Britain's case, "shadow factories" were built next to automobile factories in anticipation of the war; they were prepared to turn out copious amounts of war products (Britannica, 2012, para. 26). Germany began the conversion process, but not soon enough, and suffered until 1943, when the transformations were finally complete (Britannica, 2012, para. 26). The US, on the other hand, was as well, if not better, prepared than Britain, and when the war came, it was evident (Britannica, 2012, para. 26). All of these factors contributed to the substantial lead the Allies had over the Axis powers; in war, resources and supplies were everything, and the Allies could not afford to lose this one.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Atomic Bomb

1943 After hearing rumors about the Germans harnessing nuclear energy to create weapons, the US quickly set to work to come up with a nuclear weapon. Four years of experimenting led to the creation of the atomic bomb in 1943. At the time, the US was still at war with Japan who had rejected the Postdam Declaration that had ended war with Germany and the Soviet Union. In a desperate attempt to end the war, President Truman made the decision to use nuclear warfare. Two bombs were dropped on Japan, one in Hiroshima and one in Nagasaki, before they surrendered (World War II (1939-45), Britannica, para 47).

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Computers-The Manchester Baby

1948 July of 1946 marked the beginning of an age that would take the world by storm. Why? This was the year that Freddie Williams, a worker at the Telecommunications Research Establishment in Malvern, England, began his work to develop a method of digital storage using the cathode-ray tube (Napper, 1999, para. 2). In a short amount of time, "Williams had already succeeded in storing one bit of information on a cathode-ray tube and had filed a provisional patent in December of 1946 (Bellis, 2012, para. 5)." December of '46 was also when Williams moved to Manchester, where he worked at the university; here, he was also assisted by fellow Electro-Technics chair, Tom Kilburn, in working on the system he was developing (Napper, 1999, para. 3).
Soon after December 1946, Kilburn had increased the storage capacity of the CRT to 2048 bits, and the pair was ready to build a computer based on the Williams Tube (Bellis, 2012, para. 5). In 1948, with additional help from Geoff Tootill, the prototype nicknamed the "Baby" was designed and built; this development marked the first time in history in which a computer used a stored program (Bellis, 2012, para. 6). The program, first executed on June 21, 1948, was originally written by Tom Kilburn (Napper, 1999, para. 1).
Since this time, computers have become more complex, condense, and certainly more modern. Apple Macintoshes began the phase of modernization in 1983, and have progressed at an unstoppable rate ever since. Now, Apple computers, along with computers from Samsung, LG, and HP, are some of the most modern computers we know, and we never could have imagined using some of the first computers, such as the Manchester Baby.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Discovery of DNA

1953 For years scientists searched for the molecule that was the source of genetic information. In 1885 it was estimated that chromosomes were the basis of genetic inheritance, but it wasn't till 1953 till the secrets of DNA were revealed. Watson and Crick are known for discovering the twisted-staircase-shape of DNA that revealed how DNA stores genetic information. They discovered how the double helix uses nitrogenous-base pairs, which form the rungs of the "ladder", to store information. Different repetitions of these base pairs are what differentiates one trait from another (Britannica, Cell, para 16.)

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

The Space Age

1957 In the middle of the Cold War, there was another competition brewing between the US and the Soviet Union. The launch of Sputnik 1 set the stage for what was to become the space age. Weighing a mere 183 pounds, the artificial satellite was launched on October 4, 1957 (Lanius, 2005, para. 7). The launch was announced at the reception held by the CSAGI (Comité Speciale de l'Année Geophysique Internationale) at the Soviet Embassy in Washington DC, and American scientists were anxious, although nervous, to overtake the Soviets (Lanius, 2005, para. 3). Before the Americans could respond, the Soviet scientists struck again; Sputnik 2 was launched November 3, 1957, and this time a dog was carried inside (Lanius, 2005, para. 10). Although Sputnik 1 fell out of orbit only three months after its launch, the second spacecraft, this time weighing 1,120 pounds, orbited the Earth for nearly 200 days (Lanius, 2005, para. 10).
In response, the United States began furiously working to catch up and surpass the opponent. Political competition also had a hand in fueling their motivation. Project Vanguard, the American space project, was announced in 1958; more research, experiments, and testing was done, and Explorer 1, the first American satellite was launched January 31, 1958 (SpaceChronology.com, para. 3). Then, with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, or NASA, in July of 1958, the program in the US began to take off, literally. Space exploration, and competition with Soviet counterparts, in the twentieth century was just getting started; men in space, moon exploration, the world's largest rocket, a space telescope, and a space station for the world were all to come in the near future, changing the world's view on outer space.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

A Man in Space

1961 The Space Age had dawned, and competition between the Soviet Union and the United States was a fierce as ever. The launch of Vostok 1 began to heat up the race that much more. With its launch on April 12, 1961, the Soviet Union successfully launched the first man, Yuriy Gagarin, into space; although he was only in orbit for less than two hours, the mission proved that the human race could survive in space (SpaceChronology.com, para. 1). Such a jump ahead showed to the world that the Soviets were in fact the frontrunners in space exploration, and it called for a boost to the American space programs (SpaceChronology.com, para. 1).
The year immediately following the launch of Vostok 1, the United States tried an failed to launch Mariner 1, a mission destined for distanced exploration of Venus (SpaceChronology.com, para. 2). However, Mariner 2 was a success; scientists were able to view statistics and data of another planet, something the competition had not yet accomplished (SpaceChronology.com, para. 2). The United States was now even with the Soviets, and looking to surpass them.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Saturn V Rocket

1967 The Saturn V is famous for being the largest rocket ever built, and was an extraordinary feat to accomplish during the era. Originally developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, this super-sized method of space travel stood 363 feet tall and, fully fueled, weighed 6.2 million pounds (Hitt, 2012, para. 1). Furthermore, it produced over 7.5 million pounds of thrust during liftoff, a figure that was certainly unmatched at the time (Hitt, 2012, para. 1). The rocket was divided into three stages, each designed to fulfill a different purpose. The first stage only burned long enough to get the rocket off the ground and into Earth's atmosphere, then it fell back into the ocean. The second stage, which also held the lunar module, nearly got the vehicle into orbit, then detached and fell to the Earth as well. The third and final stage, made up of the command and service modules, was responsible for getting the crew to the moon and back, but only the command module would return to Earth. The rocket was built and used for the sole purpose of sending men to the moon. First launched without a crew on the Apollo 4 mission of 1967, the rocket was tested to ensure that future crews would be safe in the vehicle; Apollo 6, launched in 1968 fulfilled the same goal (Hitt, 2012, para. 3). Finally, crews boarded the command module for Apollo missions 8, 9 and 10, and although they only orbited the moon and tested lunar landing gear in outer space, these crews paved the way for what was to come from the Saturn V in Apollo 11 of 1969 - the first landing on the moon (Hitt, 2012, para. 4). Crews would land on the moon for the rest of the Apollo missions, excluding the infamous 13. The last Saturn V launch occurred in the absence of a crew in 1973 with the launch of Skylab (Hitt, 2012, para. 4). This final mission ended the era of the Saturn rockets, and only more space exploration was to take place.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

A Man on the Moon

1969 Since the first flights by both the Soviet Union and the United States, much more of space had been explored. Data had been collected from Venus, the Moon, and the Van Allen radiation belt, but both countries, still in the midst of the Cold War, were aiming higher. Men from both countries had orbited the Earth by now, the first being Yuriy Gagarin from the Soviet Union, followed by Alan Shepherd from the US; neither country, however, had touched the surface of the moon. This all changed with the election of President John F. Kennedy in 1960; soon after the election, he presented a challenge to the United States. His goal for the country was to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade (TheSpaceRace.com, 2012).
With the beginning of the Apollo program, all space missions carried passengers, just as Gemini and Mercury missions had, but this time, they were all destined to venture further beyond Earth; they were going to the Moon. The first missions faced many hurdles, beginning with the Apollo 1 tragedy, but NASA and corresponding scientists and astronauts pulled through, and on July 20, 1969. the unthinkable happened. The Apollo 11 crew of Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Mike Collins, took the first steps on the Moon's surface, meanwhile uttering the famous words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind," (TheSpaceRace.com, 2012).

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Entertainment Industry-Hollywood

1970 During the 1890's (industrial revolution), the cinema, or movie theatre, was invented. It was the more efficent way to entertain many people at once. As they became more popular, many worked on improving the process of making and showing films. Then, "HJ Whitley hired A.S. Barnes to design Whitley Heights as a Mediterranean-style village on the steep hillsides above Hollywood Boulevard, and it became the first celebrity community" (Wikipedia, 2012). In 1920, Hollywood became known in the world as the focal point of the film industry in the US. Hollywood had begun its film making and entertains people to this day.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Mobile Phones

1973 Martin Cooper and his team at Motorola, created the first public cell phone, the size of a brick (Anjarwalla, 2010). It was worth about $4000 back then. They had the most difficult time trying to put all the parts into the phone. The battery, which weighed five times as much as a phone today, only lasted for about 20 minutes (Teixeira, 2010). "People want to talk to other people - not a house, or an office, or a car. Given a choice, people will demand the freedom to communicate wherever they are, unfettered by the infamous copper wire. It is that freedom we sought to vividly demonstrate in 1973," quoted by Martin Cooper, himself. After his first demonstrations of his brick mobile phone, he began to try to market it. (Newstream/Arraycomm, 2010). According to Newstream/Arraycomm, "Motorola introduced the 16-ounce "DynaTAC" phone into commercial service in 1983, with each phone costing the consumer $3,500. It took seven additional years before there were a million subscribers in the United States."
*Martin Cooper, today, is the CEW of ArrayComm Inc. that was founded in 1992. "It's very exciting to be part of a movement toward making broadband available to people with the same freedom to be anywhere that they have for voice communications today," said Martin Cooper.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Human Genome Project

1989 The Human Genome Project was a 13-year project that started late 1989. According to U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs (2011), the main goals of the HGP were to "identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project." With this knowledge, it can be applied to "molecular medicine, energy sources and environmental applications, risk assessment, bioarchaeology, anthropology, evolution, and human migration, DNA forensics (identification), agriculture, livestock breeding, and bioprocessing" (U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs, 2011).

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Dolly the Sheep

1996 The world's first successful cloned mammal came into the world 1996, Dolly the sheep. Genetic engineering really became prominent towards the end of the twentieth century and was used to create crops with greater yield, animals that had foreign traits, and crops that were insect resistant. Dolly, however, really became an icon of what we can accomplish through science. She was created by using an egg cell from a surrogate mother and removing the nucleus. A nucleus from a somatic cell from Dolly's clone was then inserted into the egg cell. The egg cell was then inserted into the surrogate mother to grow into a fetus. Dolly was born genetically identical to her genetic donor (Fridovich-Keil, Dolly, para.1)

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

International Space Station

1998 The Space Race was still a part of everyday lives in both the US and the Soviet Union. Although the Cold War, and the fierce competition that came with it, was, for the most part, behind the two countries the Space Age continued as scientists discovered more and had the desire to explore more of space. The first flights into space had only been a small glimpse of what was to come, but after putting a man on the moon and a telescope in space, an international venue for space exploration was destined to be ahead.
November 20, 1998 marked the beginning of this remarkable endeavor. The first module for the space station, known as Zaraya, was launched; the second module, Unity, entered space two weeks later (Prince, Telis, 2012). Despite these advances, the International Space Station, or ISS, could not be inhabited until 2000, when the third and final part of the station was added (Prince, Telis, 2012). Completed, the ISS has about the same length and width of a football field, and weighs over 800,000 pounds (Kauderer, 2011, para. 7).
Expedition 1, the first trip the ISS, docked on November 2, 2000, and since then, 202 people have visited it as of the 10th anniversary (Kauderer, 2011, para. 1). Also at the 10th anniversary of the space station, the odometer read over 1.5 billion miles, equivalent to the 57,361 trips around the Earth that it had made by that time (Kauderer, 2011, para. 2).
Since that first trip in 1998, a total of 135 journeys have been made to the space station, including 74 Russian vehicles, 37 American shuttles, two from Europe and two from Japan, and a total of 161 space walks have been conducted (Kauderer, 2011, para. 3, 4). People from all walks of life have made their way in a rocket and up into the station; in this sense, the International Space Station has proved itself to be a truly international venue, as it will continue to be for many years to come.

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Globalization of Science, Technology, and Culture

Hubble Space Telescope

1990 From the beginning of the Space Age, scientists all around the world yearned to learn more and discover new things about outer space. Their wishes were granted in 1990 with the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, a way of viewing the furthest depths of space. The promise of clearer, deeper images of space was questioned, however, when the first images from the telescope came back blurry. After a series of discussions and tests, scientists determined that there was a flaw, about the size of one-fiftieth the thickness of a sheet of paper, in the main mirror, and this tiny error was enough to distort a whole image (HubbleSite.org, 2012, para. 37).
This was not the first time Houston had been told there was a problem. Fortunately, scientists knew exactly what needed to be done to fix this one. The next space shuttle, Endeavor, was launched in 1993 with the crew and equipment needed to successfully repair the telescope (HubbleSite.org, 2012, para. 41). Less than two months later, the first post-repair images were released, and they were astounding; the clarity, beauty, and depth were unmatched by any telescope on the Earth's surface. Three more space shuttle missions were launched to make repairs and modifications to the telescope, the fourth and final one being in 2009 (Prince, Telis, 2012). Since the launch of the Hubble Telescope, scientists worldwide have been able to learn more about the universe than they ever had before.

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Demographic and Environmental Changes

Pesticides-DDT

1939 Discovered in 1939 by Swiss chemist Paul Müller, DDT had a huge impact on both World War II, and the agricultural world after the conclusion of the war. Although DDT, chemically known as dichloro diphenyl trichloro-ethane, was first formulated in the mid-1800s, Müller was the first to recognize its potential; he discovered that it had the ability to kill insects (Ganzel, 2011, para. 3). Governments around the world, including the United States', took advantage of the discovery and quickly poured investments into it. Keeping in mind that flies carried typhus and mosquitoes carried malaria, the US Military sent soldiers to Europe with countless packets of the insecticide; they were instructed to sprinkle it in and around their sleeping bags in order to keep the disease-causing insects off of them, thus insuring the safety of the soldiers (Ganzel, 2011, para. 3).
In addition to this small application of DDT, the product was dusted over entire towns and countries, even islands. Several Italian towns were dusted with DDT from the air in an effort to control lice, and in the South Pacific, several islands took the same precaution with mosquitoes (Ganzel, 2011, para. 3). Due to these wartime applications, World War II was the first conflict in which battle killed more people than disease, unlike prior wars (Ganzel, 2011, para. 1)
Aside from the role DDT had during the war, many farmers in the United States and in other countries were eager to get their hands on the insecticide. Other methods to rid crop fields of insects had been tried before, but none proved to be as effective on pests and as harmless to humans as DDT did (Ganzel, 2011, para. 6). The development of other pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides were also due to studies and tests done on DDT; chemists were able to quickly put out new, and more numerous amounts of, weed- and insect-killers (Ganzel, 2011, para. 7). Ultimately, all of this helped to increase success rates in crop production.

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Demographic and Environmental Changes

Population and Migration Patterns

1950 Rapid population growth became common in the modern era, especially in developing nations. Why? Efforts to improve medicines and sanitation are one of the main causes for this increased population. In Africa, the high birth rates in combination with the lowered mortality rates no doubt resulted in a higher population. However, impoverished people still faced diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, and malaria. Ebola, AIDS, and the influenza pandemics emerged during this era. In Europe, governments accounted for the population decline of the early 20th century by encouraging the migration of guest workers. However, Xenophobia, an ?intense fear of foreigners, often was shown in protests, race riots, and government policies restricting citizenship? (Martin, 2011). Unlike Europe, Asia experienced tremendous population growth. South Korea experienced the world?s largest population density, and, as a result, large numbers migrated out of the country. Japan?s government promoted birth control and abortion to address its ever-increasing population. China controlled its huge population by means of restricting family sized; by the late 1980s, the one-child policy in China restricted couples to only one child. Migration in this period most frequently occurred between developing to developed nations along with from rural to urban areas (which has resulted in the formation of shanty-towns along the edges of urban areas).

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Demographic and Environmental Changes

London Smog

1952 The 1952 London Smog was caused by the ignorant burning of nonrenewable resources in a way that killed around 4,000 London citizens at once and 8,000 over a period of two and a half months. The smokestacks, whom were burning fossil fuels, released polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into the air. Basically, the smokestacks caused hot air to rise trapping all other air underneath. When citizens then used their fireplaces and furnaces, the toxic chemicals released into the air were trapped causing smog. The yellowish almost black air ended by taking many people's lives.

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Demographic and Environmental Changes

Green Revolution

1960s Also known as the Green Revolution, the Third Agricultural Revolution began as early as the 1930s. Although after World War II, much of Europe and North America practiced what is known as industrialized agriculture and could efficiently produce more than enough food (from crops and livestock), many of the less developed countries in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America still faced the concern of hunger. Farmers in these areas could still not produce enough food to support the country?s population. The ideas and technologies of industrialized agriculture had yet to spread to these less developed countries (Rhoades, 2011). The success of the Green Revolution was revolutionary. Now, rather than from hunger and failure in production, most famines result from political instability. The success is definitely evident. For example, by the 1980s, India became self-sufficient in grain production. Rice production increased by two-thirds between 1970 and 1995. ?These drastic increases in production stemmed not only from new seed varieties but also from use of fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation in some places, and significant capital improvements (Blij et al., 2006, p.331).?

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Demographic and Environmental Changes

Kyoto Protocol

1992 Although governments first met in 1972 at a meeting in order to discuss the issue of global warming, global warming did not seem to be that big of a problem to them and therefore was basically dismissed. In 1992 after realizing that global warming was an issue a meeting was held to start a protocol which would force each membering country to reduce the levels of greenhouse emissions while not threatening the country's source of food and maintaining economic development. The treaty however, was for countries that were not developed including China and India. America and Australia did not like the idea of giving China and India and economic edge and therefore did not sign the treaty. The treaty was signed by 154 nations.

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Demographic and Environmental Changes

Environmental Conditions

2000 In summary, this era was filled with numerous environmental conditions that continue to plague our world, including oil spills, nuclear spills, along with warfare destruction. For example, the US used chemical defoliants in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Huge amounts of oil were spilled by Iraq's Saddam Hussein during the Persian Gulf War; many of Kuwait's oil fields were even set on fire. Human waste and industrialization continue to pollute our water and air. Europe's industrialization, for example, polluted the region's rivers and farmlands. Overgrazing and deforestation resulted from population growth in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, which itself contributes to global warming. However, this era also saw progressive steps in protecting the environment. Governments restricted the use of chemicals that cause ozone depletion, for example. Additionally, even antipollution devices were "installed on automobiles, planes, and industrial smokestacks" (Martin, 2011).

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Literature

War by Luigi Pirandello

1919 "War", written by Luigi Pirandello in 1919, is a short story written about travelers on a train in a country at war. It starts off where the new passenger is describing how is wife is depressed that her only son was taken off to war. Some of the other passengers in the car try to tell how their situation is worse than the other person's because every passengers' sons are in the war. This is due to human nature; humans have a drive to be right over someone else all the time (Planeswalker, 2009). Then one of the passengers tells them that their children belong to the Nation and that their actions are influenced by the Nation. The woman that was upset that her only son went off to war started to loosen the grip of her depression after the passenger explained this. She then proceeded to ask him if his son had really died. The passenger started to cry because he had never dealt with the pain of his son dying.

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Literature

from Night by Elie Wiesel

1944 Night, by Elie Wiesel, is the horrifying story of a boy's journey through several German concentration camps during World War II. Although the story ends with the boy (Eliezer Wiesel) being rescued by the United States and Allied powers' troops, the spirit of Elie is crushed by the events he had been part and witnessed. He had seen the world's most terrifying evil during his time in the concentration camps, and by the end of the story, all hope had been destroyed. The boy has lost his faith in mankind and God. While Night does not end happily, it doesn't end bleakly either; the story simply leaves important questions about the Holocaust (moral questions along with questions relating to religion) to the reader.

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Literature

Lord of the Flies

1954 Written by William Golding in 1954, Lord of the Flies exemplifies the modernist movement by truly depicting the radical ideas of writers during the movement. The compelling story, following the adventures of a group of boys stranded on an island, and through several themes, including social order, fear of the unknown, loss of identity, and clarity and reason, are all clear examples of thoughts of writers during this time period.
Upon arriving on the island, alone and without any grown-ups to watch over them, Ralph, along with another boy known as Piggy, find a conch along the shoreline of the island and use the shell as a horn to gather everyone together. The boys decide that there should be a chief; Ralph, one of the older boys on the island, is voted chief, and almost immediately assumes responsibility. He delegates several tasks, such as keeping a signal fire lit, to several of the other boys in the group, showing his leadership. All of these events combined show the beginnings of social order on the island; the concept becomes important to the way of life that the boys learn to live by, especially as competition for a leadership position brews between Ralph and Jack. However, the competition on the island takes a turn toward viciousness and the loss of innocence, showing the true nature of humans; this same idea is also evident in the fighting and vicious nature behind the two world wars.
As exploration of the island begins, many of the boys, particularly the younger ones, become frightened of the possibilities of what could be on the island. Various "beasties" haunt their dreams, prompting Jack and the other hunters to search for any other creatures. Even though only wild pigs are found, there is still an aura of fear among all of the boys. The darkness also looms over the group; their fear of it prevents them from making any adventurous moves during the night, and intensifies their fears of creatures that could be on the island. These same sort of fears existed among domestic people all around the world, especially during the wars. Mothers certainly had something to be fearful of in not knowing whether their husbands and sons would return home. Even after the war, the Cold War brought on the fear of more nuclear attacks. These possibilities would be enough to drive anyone mad, as it did the boys in Lord of the Flies.
Loss of identity is another common theme in the novel. As time goes on, the boys stop differentiating between each other. The younger boys, or "little ones," become referred to as "littluns," rather than by their given names. The trend continues with Sam and Eric, twins; they become known as Samneric, almost as if they are one person. Although this could be perceived as a bad thing, the idea reflects attitudes after World War II; many people during and after the war were forced to move around or out of their homelands. By moving to a new place with new cultures, they would have lost some of the culture they brought with them, instead taking on a new identity as an immigrant. This same concept can be related to the boys on the island; they may have come from proper, English backgrounds, but all sense of humanity was lost when they realized they were going to have to depend only on each other for survival.
Finally, the clarity and reason evident in Lord of the Flies are fantastic examples of the clarity and reason that existed leading up to and within the modernist movement. Writers began to think from a scientific, logical perspective, and in this era, they began combining these thoughts with the radical ideas that we see in most of the literature. In the novel, Piggy, along with his "specs," represents the clarity and reason that adults would have had, had they been on the island as well. Piggy may be the center of all teasing, but his ideas are the most rational out of everyone. Simon also helps to provide reason in the matter of the beasts; he is convinced that the beast is nonexistent, and is determined to prove it. He knows that they are alone on the island and that they should not be worried about anything; he does eventually prove this, but at a price.
Throughout William Golding's most famous novel, he demonstrates his knowledge and experience relating to the war and the modernist movement through the characters he develops and the actions they take. These aspects exemplify everything that this era of literature should; the book is interesting, while still captivating your attention.

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Literature

Modernism in Literature

1900s The Modernism movement in literature began in around 1904 and was powered by the idea of challenging literary conventions of all previous eras. Modern writers focused on radical ideas such as the sci-fi novels we know today and novels focused on utopian societies. Writers like T.S. Elliot and D.H. Lawrence became known in this era for their innovative pieces on the sickness of the modern era (Britannica, English Literature, para. 54).

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The 20th century brought on the dawn of a new age. Political, ethnic, and religious conflicts were at an all-time high, and states and economies were continuously developing. As the world’s population began to increase exponentially, diseases took hold of more people. Ancient dynasties weakened, and new world powers emerged; alliances formed, and nationalism was fortified. Military tactics improved with trench warfare, tanks, airplanes, and atomic bombs. The Modern Era was, and still is, a defining age in world history; with countless advances in technology, science, medicine, aerospace, literature, communication, and transportation, there is no stopping the human population from going where no man has gone before.
To conclude a fabulous second year in Studio, this is exactly what will be accomplished. Project 7 will utilize a series of QR Codes, augmented reality, and 3D images, all embedded in a collage of the century. Events, news, music, literature, and innovations will all be represented in this mural, and with the use of mobile devices, information about each graphic can be accessed. Time Scanning is a concept that will not only live on in Studio, but throughout the school if the mural becomes a permanent structure.

The Super Six:
Tiffany Dang
Ashay Sheth
Caroline Shimkus
Maddie Sibilia
Kevin Coyne
Tyler Shelnutt